Born again, hell and other questions from a disbeliever

Here are a few questions from a disbeliever with my replies:

1.  So, the fact that John and Marion–John, Catholic and Marion, Anglican–do not see hell as my destination–that fact implies that God has not regenerated them?

Reply –  “Any man who thinks he deserves heaven is not a Christian. But for any man who knows he deserves Hell, there’s hope” (Martyn Lloyd-Jones) [This is the first thing I wrote in Hell in a nutshell]

2.  Is that why you have said that they, too, will land up in hell?

Reply –  Any person who thinks a disbeliever deserves heaven is not a Christian.

3.  How do Calvinists differ from Anglicans?

Reply – I quote a good answer.

Difference between Calvinism and Anglicanism

[Words in square brackets are mine]

  • Anglicanism is a Protestant Church that:

– Affirms the Apostolic Succession and the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy, in contrast to Calvinist emphasis on the Presbytery and rejection of the Apostolic Succession.

– Accepts the Arminian view of predestination, as opposed to the Calvinist view of predestination. [The Arminian says that God predestines those whom he sees from eternity will become believers. The Calvinist says that salvation is 100% God’s doing; the believer’s joyful role is to receive it]

– Accepts the Monarch as head of the Church, as oppose to Calvinist rejection of the whole hierarchy, and, if they live in England and are not republicans or anti-Royalist, accepting the monarch not as a spiritual power, but simply as a temporal one.

– Anglicanism is divided into the High Church and the Low Church, the High Church being more ritualistic and more…Catholic, whereas the low church has these elements to a lesser degree, Calvinism reject all these Catholic Elements altogether.

– The above should not be taken as God’s truth about the two Churches, as the Anglican Church did include Calvinist and Arminians who frequently debated each other as to the evolution and formation of the Church…the Church of Scotland, for example, is explicitly Calvinist Presbyterian, while the Church of England become more and more ARMINIAN in its theology, though, it seems to me, mostly heterogeneous in its theology.

[When Calvinism is contrasted with Arminianism, what first comes to mind is God’s role and man’s role in coming to faith. The Calvinist says that man plays no cooperative or contributive role in coming to faith, while the Arminian says that man cooperates with God in that man turns his heart to God, that is, exercises his will to come to faith. In Calvinism, God first regenerates the sinner and then gives the sinner the gift of faith, while in Arminianism, regeneration follows the sinner’s acceptance of God’s offer of salvation. Faith, for the Arminian is something the believer does, not something God gives, as Calvinism understands it. There were many Calvinists in the early Anglican church, but very few today].

4.  Do you call yourself a born-again Calvinist or a Calvinist?

Reply- “Calvinist” is a label, nothing more. It is useful because Calvin is the most famous representative of the five solas (Latin for “alone”). The five solas are Sola Scriptura – Scripture, Alone
Solus Christus – Christ Alone,
Sola Gratia – Grace Alone,
Sola Fide – Faith Alone,
Soli Deo Gloria – The Glory of God Alone. With regard to the “Glory of God alone,” I argued in my most recent article (The weight of God’s glory. Wait!) that God will never share HIS glory; but this does not mean He won’t give us a little of our own. Humanistic modesty and Christian humility don’t mix. Christian humility is to acknowledge that “our light and momentary troubles are achieving for us an eternal glory that far outweighs them all” (2 Corinthians 4:17).

No one calls themselves a born again Calvinist. It would be like calling oneself a born again Paulist (Paul the Apostle). “Born again Christian”  (or Calvinist!) is a tautology, because both terms mean that God has regenerated you.Every Christian is by definition born again. it is, of course, more informative to say that you are Christian than to say I am born again, which only Christians – not all by a long shot – will understand. Many “Charismatic” Christians regard “born again” as a second experience, which is unbiblical.

5.  If you call yourself a born-again Calvinist–how do you know that God has regenerated you?

– “Born again Christian”  (or Calvinist!) is a tautology, as I replied in 4.

I know that God has regenerated me because of the primordial reason that the Bible tells me so.

Related articles

 

Unconditional election and unconditional eclection

In Arminian theology, unconditional election means that “whosoever” opens (by which they mean, any one who wills to open) the door of their hearts to Jesus, will be elected to eternal life – on condition, of course, that they don’t show Jesus the door in the interim. Abuse it, and lose it. “That’s the risk we must take, my Son.” The plan of salvation: Is it worth the risk, my Son? What, risk! Ask Jacques Derrida, CS Lewis and Thomas Oord.

In Reformed theology, unconditional election means that those whom God has chosen from eternity did not depend on anything – least of all on allowing Jesus into their hearts. God has mercy on whosoever (the ones) he wants to have mercy (Romans 9).

If you were a Greek speaking Christian in Jesus time, or are one today, you would not speak of election but “eclection.” So, am I saying that if you’re Greek, you think that God doesn’t follow any one method of election, which would mean that he saves those who, upon “knock, knock,” rush to open the door as well as those whom Jesus first has to raise from the dead before they can get out of their beds to do the same?

No, I don’t mean that God is eclectic . All I mean is that in the Greek New Testament, the word for “election is EKLEkTOS from ek “from” and lego “to gather,” “ to pick out.” Tee hee.

Blessed Assurance: “When I lego my elect, I never letgo. 

(Inspired by Vines Epository dictionary, Thomas Nelson, p. 351)

Conversation between a Jewish agnostic and Jewish Calvinist

Although I have written about 20 posts on “Arminanism and Calvinism,” this topic is relatively a small part of my “bog” (My user name is “bography”). It is, however, very important because it deals with the role of man and God in salvation. 

When Calvinism is contrasted with Arminianism, what first comes to mind is God’s role and man’s role in coming to faith. The Calvinist says that man plays no cooperative or contributive role in coming to faith, while the Arminian says that man cooperates with God in that man turns his heart to God, that is, exercises his will to come to faith. In Calvinism, God first regenerates the sinner and then gives the sinner the gift of faith, while in Arminianism, regeneration follows the sinner’s acceptance of God’s offer of salvation. Faith, for the Arminian is something the believer does, not something God gives, as Calvinism understands it.

Here is a verbatim conversation between an agnostic and a Calvinist, moi. We both had Jewish parents. The agnostic did not grow up in a Jewish-keeping home whereas I  did. The issues discussed deal with differences between Calvinism and Arminianism in relation to faith, works and assurance of salvation. 

Conversation

Agnostic Jew (AJ): You say that it’s not ok for Arminians to ask God to forgive them and then go ahead and repeat their sin and then ask for forgiveness again etc and assume that they are saved.  (Because their being saved has nothing to do with their deeds, only with God’s choice).What about Calvinists?  You say they are saved because God has chosen them.  But what if these saved Calvinists commit murder or something? Are you assuming that, because they are saved, Calvinists never sin?

Calvinist Jew (CJ): One’s life  indicates whether one is regenerated or not. So whether you are Arminian or Calvinist, the evidence of your faith lies in the fruit it bears in your thoughts, actions and attitudes.

AJ: So, then it IS possible that a saved Calvinist can be lost if he/she sins?  So it DOES have quite a lot to do with the person him/herself?  So in spite of God’s choosing to save a particular individual, that person can still be condemned?

CJ: With regard to losing your salvation, a Calvinist says no, an Arminian says yes. In Calvinism, salvation is wholly a work of the Lord (monergism – mono “alone; ergon “work”). In Arminianism, salvation ultimately depends on man (synergism – syn “together”; ergon “work”), where man and God cooperate in salvation. 

In Calvinism, 1. if good works do not accompany faith, this means you had a false faith, and 2. you are assured  that you will never lose your faith. If you do “lose” it, it means you did not have true faith. 

In Arminianism, there are two main attitudes towards “works”: 1. The Protestant view – works cannot save you, 2. The Roman Catholic view – works (plus faith) save you. In all Arminian views, you CAN lose your faith again and again and again. The reason is that you get to decide your salvation, and you know how fickle the human heart is. I give a more comprehensive explanation here.

https://onedaringjew.wordpress.com/2012/06/29/did-you-accept-christ-before-or-after-you-were-regenerated-born-again/

AJ – I see what you mean.

End of conversation

Now, if an agnostic and a (clever) Jew to boot can see what I mean, why is it that Arminians (both Jewish and Gentile) kick against the pricks? Simply, as the Bible says, it is God who opens or keeps shut blind eyes – so that no one may (even be tempted to) boast.

Does the fact that we’re both Jewish contribute to the content? Not really, but the title did grab your attention. Crafty.

God’s grace and the bugbear of an authoritarian God: Why do Christians need psychology to relate to God?

This post was published earlier. I repost it here.

What contribution does Christian psychology make to the relationship between Christians and God? I shall argue that Christians who need psychology to come to God are deceived. They may need psychology because they often do not understand or refuse to accept the biblical view of coming to faith in Christ. 

According to Pastor Steven J. Cole, who had been deeply involved with Christian psychology, psychology contributes hardly anything to an understanding of how a person comes to Christ. But the worst of it is that Christian psychology claims to enable a person to come to Christ by cutting through all the authoritarian stuff such as God ordering one what to think, what to believe, what to do. Cole relates the following incident:

…the elders assigned to another elder and me to check out the book that the proposed “Recovery Group” led by my associate wanted to use. This elder and his wife had been on Campus Crusade’s staff for about 20 years and he taught at their seminary (my church was near Crusade’s headquarters and many of our people were on staff). His wife was one of the emotionally “hurting” people who wanted us to start these recovery groups.”

The book we read was Henry Cloud’s When Your World Makes No Sense [Oliver-Nelson, 1990]. I was told that it would help me understand these hurting people. I tried to give it every benefit of a doubt, but there was one part early in the book that troubled me, where Cloud asserts that for these hurting people, the “standard Christian answers” (dealing with sin, faith, obedience, time in the Word and prayer, etc.) did “not work.” He compares such things to the counsel given by Job’s friends, calling it “worthless medicine.” Then he proposes his solution, which is essentially a baptized version of developmental psychology.”

Here’s the mother load (my italics):

As this elder and I were discussing Cloud’s approach, he told me that people like his wife who were from dysfunctional homes could not relate to my preaching because I emphasize obedience to God’s Word. Because they had strict, cold, authoritarian fathers, they don’t relate well to authority. I replied that I thought that I also put a strong emphasis on God’s grace as the motivation for obedience. But he responded that his wife couldn’t even relate to God’s grace — it went right by her. I was a bit taken aback, and so I said, “You mean that the many times I have spoken on God’s grace, she didn’t hear me?” He said yes, in her 20 years on Crusade staff, never once had she felt God’s grace and love on a personal level.”

I thought about what he had said and asked some clarifying questions to make sure I understood him. Then I responded, “If your wife has never felt God’s love and grace, she is not converted!” I had been reading Jonathan Edwards’ classic, A Treatise on Religious Affections, in which he makes a strong biblical case that saving faith is not mere intellectual assent to the gospel, but that it affects the heart. This elder got very upset with me. But I stuck to my guns then and do so now, that if a person can sit in church for 20 years and never be moved by God’s grace and love as shown to us at the cross, then that person is not truly converted.”

As I thought about what this elder, my associate, Henry Cloud, and others in their camp were saying, I realized that, in effect, they were saying that the transforming power of the gospel, which has sustained the saints in and through every conceivable trial, was not sufficient to deal with the emotional problems of these late 20th century Christians. And, I came to realize that the psychologized approach to Christianity was built on the inadequate theology that equates conversion with making a decision to invite Christ into your heart. But the two are not necessarily synonymous.”

And here’s where Arminians (a sinner participates in being born again) and Calvinists (God does all the “rebirthing”) disagree. 

Biblically, conversion is the supernatural act of God whereby He imparts spiritual life to a person who is dead in trespasses and sins (Eph. 2:1-5). It is not something that man can effect at all (John 1:12-13). As Calvin (and Edwards) helped me to see, invariably God has revealed to the truly converted person something of His awesome majesty and holiness.”

Arminians are synergists (erg – work, syn -with) ; they believe they co-operate with God in their regeneration – “born again”), while Calvinists are monergists; they believe that the dead cannot regenerate themselves, and so God does all the work in “rebirthing” the sinner.

The heart of the matter is this: Nobody in their “right” mind (that is, natural mind) wants an invisible force lording itself/himself over him/her. That is why regeneration is a unilateral act of (a living personal) God. Here is the Apostle John (Gospel of John 1):

9 The true light that gives light to everyone was coming into the world. 10 He was in the world, and though the world was made through him, the world did not recognize him. 11 He came to that which was his own, but his own did not receive him. 12 Yet to all who did receive him, to those who believed in his name, he gave the right to become children of God— 13 children born not of natural (flesh) descent, nor of human decision (the will) or a husband’s will, but born of God.

I said that “regeneration” is a unilateral act of God. Once the sinner has been raised out of the grave, he is enabled to convert (to turn to Christ), that is accept Christ. He does so willingly, and joyfully, of course, because he not only is made free to do so, but he discovers that he was made free to do so. Eureka. Much more joy.

How is it that most professing Christians don’t get it? See; born not of your dead nature, not of your will (two ways of saying the same thing).

When God draws sinners to Him, they don’t yearn for a counsellor to ease them into their prospective role as servant son or servant daughter of Almighty God. “No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws them, and I will raise them up at the last day” (John 6:44). Why are you so concerned about your democratic rights when you have been assured that if God draws you to him, you will live eternally: “I will raise them up at the last day.” If a divine promise of living forever in joy and peace does not cut it for you, then go and emasculate yourself.

Instantly, continues Cole, like Isaiah after his vision of God, the sinner is struck with his utter defilement of heart in the presence of this unapproachable light, and he cries out, “Woe is me, for I am undone!” Rather than feeling better about himself, he feels much worse as he realizes his true condition before the Holy God. Like the man in Jesus’ story, he is even unwilling to lift up his eyes to heaven, but he beats his breast and cries out, “God, be merciful to me, the sinner!” (Luke 18:13). And, of course, God is merciful to all who truly call on Him.”

Post haste: Not all Arminians need the authority of a psychologist to ease them into the harness of divine authority. And hey, there’s also bound to be a Calvinist or two who are not averse to a little psychological help in matters religious.

I’m nothing but a sinner saved by grace, nothing but forgiven, nothing but emasculated

In 1 Peter 3:15, Christians are admonished to “always be prepared to give an answer to everyone who asks you to give the reason for the hope that you have. But do this with gentleness and respect…”

I sometimes fall down on giving an answer with gentleness.For example, I said elsewhere that you Christians who maintain that you first believe (decide to have faith) and then are raised from the dead to decide to believe even more “need a (respectful and reverential) kick in your Arminian pants.” I may have been even more brassy to Arminians when, taking a leaf out of Paul the Apostle’s book, I didn’t only let loose, as Paul did (in connection with those believers who insisted that Gentile believers be circumcised – Galatians 5:11) that he wished they would go the whole hog and emasculate themselves. I was much more blunt: “Go and emasculate yourselves.” To add insult to injury, 1 Peter 3:15 is about giving an answer to those who ask me, and no Arminian asked me how faith and regeneration work together; I just went in hammer and tong(ue). Good thing I’m not an apostle.

But let me move on to the main clause in 1 Peter 3:15, “… always be prepared to give an answer to everyone who asks you to give the reason for the hope that you have.” “Everyone” here refers to unbelievers. Permit me to expand the cohort of Peter’s listeners to Christians as well, who also need to ingest from other Christians the vittles of Christianity. Sometimes, alas, the meat dished out can be rather stringy. Here are two examples:

Not only those who call themselves Christians but even committed ones, say, when asked (and sometimes not asked) what Christianity means to them: “I’m no more than a sinner saved by grace.” To wit: 

Hazlett Lynch, in introduction to “D. Martyn LLoyd-Jones (1899-1981: A Personal Appreciation,” says in his opening paragraph:

As one who has been reading and studying the Lloyd-Jones material for about 40 years, I am delighted to offer this paper as my humble contribution to the legacy of this dear servant of Christ to the Christian Church. To write about such a man as the Doctor (as he was affectionately known) was is an enormous privilege, and yet is a deeply humbling experience for me. I lay no claim to an expertise in the works of Dr D. Martyn Lloyd-Jones, and am no more than a sinner saved by divine grace; yet I am that, and for that I am eternally grateful” (my italics). (For more context, see here).

Another example: Your answer you give to the hope that is within you is “I have been forgiven.” With regard to forgiveness, guilt is one the greatest human burdens. So, when you are told that God can wipe away all your sin, and all you have to do is believe that Christ paid the penalty in your place, and all can be wiped clean, you may – most, of course, won’t – jump at the offer and “give your heart” to Christ. If, however, that is all Christianity is for you, and all the other “stuff” like reading your Bible, praying, going to church, sharing with other Christians are a drag, then all you would’ve done is replace one burden with a another: religion. You’ve dredged up your guilt and masked it by the drudge of religion. 

A Christian is forgiven, of course, and that is most wonderful; the chains have been removed, indeed, you have been raised from death. But, the even more glorious thing than being no longer dead is becoming alive, is being in Christ. What is it to be alive in Christ?

“Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us in Christ with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places, even as he chose us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and blameless before him. In love he predestined us for adoption as sons through Jesus Christ, according to the purpose of his will, to the praise of his glorious grace, with which he has blessed us in the Beloved. In him we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of his grace, which he lavished upon us, in all wisdom and insight making known to us the mystery of his will, according to his purpose, which he set forth in Christ as a plan for the fullness of time, to unite all things in him, things in heaven and things on earth. In him we have obtained an inheritance, having been predestined according to the purpose of him who works all things according to the counsel of his will, so that we who were the first to hope in Christ might be to the praise of his glory. In him you also, when you heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation, and believed in him, were sealed with the promised Holy Spirit, who is the guarantee of our inheritance until we acquire possession of it, to the praise of his glory

(Ephesians 1:3-14 ESV)

Christians, should you give such an answer as above to everyone who asks you to give the reason for the hope within you? Won’t it be too much for an unbeliever? Shouldn’t we rather aim lower, at something an unbeliever can dig their rational teeth into such as the evidence for the resurrection of Jesus? Now you’re making me want to pick up something sharp again. Don’t you think the Holy Spirit of God can turn a heart of stone into a heart of flesh, and don’t you think the best way He has chosen to do this is the scripture, for didn’t He say this was the way to do it? Wasn’t this the way He did it for you? 

Talk till you’re purple in the face about the evidence of the resurrection and the moral argument for God, about the wonders of human embryology (something amazing to see) , even calling it “divine” and “miraculous,” but unless the Holy Spirit of God irrupts into your life, you remain dead; in what ultimately matters: a life with God in Christ. 

Can’t continue…was cut off.

 

The pith of ”It’s not he who willeth.” Romans 9 and free will

This image was first published in the 1 st (18...

Arminius

Lately, I’ve been writing much on that “hellish” doctrine of the bondage of man’s will. Today I was listening again to gentle James White’s exposition of Romans 9 and reading again (which is always a gain) one of my previous posts, The Jew’s role in salvation and the future of ethnic Israel: Give John Piper his due.

Here are a few more comments on the bondage of the human will in salvation with reference to Romans 9, which encapsulate (but hopefully do not insulate) what I said in “The Jew’s role in salvation…”(URL above).

Jewish believers in Jesus are generally Arminians (a very few might be Armenians as well). Arminianism states that human dignity requires an unimpaired freedom of the will to choose salvation, which implies that the one who ultimately decides salvation is the believer. In contrast, the Reformed (Calvinist) position states that salvation is totally of the Lord. Christians are Arminians on their feet and Calvinists on their knees.

On feet – Jesus thank you for giving me, and my brothers and sisters I’m praying day and night for, this precious freedom to allow you to change my, and their, heart.

On knees – Jesus please please change their hearts.

Arminians are unable (until enabled) to see that the main focus of Romans is not about the pre eminence or eminence of ethnic Israel. Romans 9 is about individual salvation where Paul uses the example of two Jewish boys (Jacob and Esau, both rotters) to show that not all Jews are automatically part of God’s family. That’s the plain sense of Romans 9:13-16, that is, if you accept that you cannot accept the Gospel unless God makes you willing to do so.

To our Romans 9:

13 ”As it is written, Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated. 14 What shall we say then? Is there unrighteousness with God? God forbid. 15 For he saith to Moses, I will have mercy on whom I have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion. 16 So then it is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that hath mercy.

What about verse 16?

“So then it is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that hath mercy.

Him” in v. 16 is an individual. It’s clear as day. So, to repeat, it’s not the person that wills, or runs (a parallel for “wills”) who ultimately saves himself (makes the final decision) but it is God’s mercy that saves. Arminians retort that there are many other parts of the Bible that command you to choose. That’s true, but those commands are the means God uses to call those on whom he will have mercy. No human being knows whom God has called – from eternity (irrespective of what he sees they’re going to do once on earth), so all an evangelist can do is make a general call. If you understand that, you’ve got the kernel of how one comes to Christ. No medals, though.

But hang on, consider what I said above about Jacob and Esau:

“Romans 9 is about individual salvation where Paul uses the example of two Jewish boys (Jacob and Esau, who both turned out to be rotters in their own way) to show that not all Jews are automatically part of God’s family.”

Now, it says the following in verses 11 and 12, which I had not included above: “Yet, before the twins were born or had done anything good or bad–in order that God’s purpose in election might stand: not by works but by him who calls–she was told, “The older will serve the younger.”

So, if God’s purpose of election does not depend on Jacob, or Esau (or you or me) doing anything good or bad, what has not  doing anything good or bad  to do with the twins turning into rotters later on in their life? Surely, a rotter is a doer.

Paul provides the answer in Chapter 5 of the same Epistle. It’s called the doctrine of ”Original Sin”:

Therefore, just as sin came into the world through one man, and death through sin, and so death spread to all men because all sinned—for sin indeed was in the world before the law was given, but sin is not counted where there is no law. Yet death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those whose sinning was not like the transgression of Adam, who was a type of the one who was to come. But the free gift is not like the trespass. For if many died through one man’s trespass, much more have the grace of God and the free gift by the grace of that one man Jesus Christ abounded for many. And the free gift is not like the result of that one man’s sin. For the judgment following one trespass brought condemnation, but the free gift following many trespasses brought justification. For if, because of one man’s trespass, death reigned through that one man, much more will those who receive the abundance of grace and the free gift of righteousness reign in life through the one man Jesus Christ.
Therefore, as one trespass led to condemnation for all men, so one act of righteousness leads to justification and life for all men. For as by the one man’s disobedience the many were made sinners, so by the one man’s obedience the many will be made righteous.

(Romans 5:12-19)

In Ephesians 2:1-3, we read:

”And you did he make alive, when ye were dead through your trespasses and sins, wherein ye once walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the powers of the air, of the spirit that now worketh in the sons of disobedience; among whom we also once lived in the lusts of our flesh, doing the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest.”

The first sentence “dead through trespasses and sins,”could very well be talking about personal sins we commit throughout our lives, and, therefore, is not dealing with the concept of being born in sin (as spelled out in Romans 5 above). Later in the passage, however, we do read that we (Christians) were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest (all other human beings).”

There are swathes of Arminians who hate the doctrine of ”original sin” ( clearly explained in Romans 5 above) so much that they will insist that ” by nature children of wrath” definitely does not mean ”born with a sin nature.” Here, for example,  is Wayne Jackson’s conclusion to his Are Infants “by Nature” Children of Wrath?

”The Bible does not teach the doctrine of inherited depravity. The dogma is strictly of human origin. ”And it is a serious tragedy that those who profess to be friends of the Scriptures will teach this error, thereby subjecting the Christian system to unjustified criticism. Ephesians 2:3 does not teach inherited depravity.”

Barnes’ notes on the Bible takes a neutral position, which, implies that he is not out to promote the doctrine of ”total depravity.” ”Radical corruption” is a more accurate term, because ”total depravity” suggests ”utter depravity,” which would suggest that no one can be good enough to love his dog, or Beethoven. Barnes is a Methodist, therefore, an Arminian. He couldn’t be anything else, for it is only an Arminian who hates the doctrine of ”Original sin” and her daughter ”total depravity.” Here is Barnes (my italics):

”And were by nature – Φύσει Fusei. By birth, or before we were converted By conversion and adoption they became the children of God; before that, they were all the children of wrath. This is, I think, the fair meaning of this important declaration. It does not affirm “when” they began to be such, or that they were such as soon as they were born, or that they were such before they became moral agents, or that they became such in virtue of their connection with Adam – whatever may be the truth on these points; but it affirms that before they were renewed, they were the children of wrath. So far as this text is concerned, this might have been true at their very birth; but it does not directly and certainly prove that. It proves that at no time before their conversion were they the children of God, but that their whole condition before that was one of exposure to wrath.”

Let us grant that Barnes’ neutral position is true. What, however, about ”just as sin came into the world through one man, and death through sin, and so death spread to all men because all sinned—for sin indeed was in the world before the law was given…” (Romans 5 above).

When it comes to biblical exegesis, Calvinists are accused of being more ”philosophical” than biblical. Too much noggin is the complaint. Too much pride, pomposity, assumptions, presumptions, presuppositions, interpretations, categorisations, ratiocinations – in short too much philosophy.

The upshot: whereas Barnes is painfully neutral, Calvinists are painstakingly neural. I think the root of the differences between the Arminian and Calvinist goes deeper than the core text or the cortex, into what the psychologists call ”conation.”

”Conation”  is a term that stems from the Latin conatus, meaning any natural tendency, impulse, striving, or directed effort. It is one of three parts of the mind, along with the affective and cognitive. In short, the cognitive part of the brain measures intelligence, the affective deals with emotions and the conative drives how one acts on those thoughts and feelings” (Wikipedia).

The Bible calls these three areas, the mind, the will and the heart. With regard to ”radical corruption,” the Calvinist exegesis is that when Adam ”fell,” all three, mind, will, and heart, became radically corrupted. The Bible is adamant that the whole human race fell in Adam. How this happened, the Bible doesn’t tell us. In my book, and in my Bible, that is the only hard doctrine hard to swallow whole. Why should I suffer because of what my father (umpteen generations ago did)?

The Arminian, in contrast, is obsessed with ”conation,” with the coronation of his ”free” will,  free to love God.  And so, in his endeavour to hold tight on to his ”free will,” he plays footloose with the doctrine of ”Original sin,”  distorting  it into a aboriginal monstrosity. The boot is on the other foot.

When the Calvinist reads the Bible, he sees man freely following his heart. The man thinks, he desires, and his mind directs that desire to its object. The will is not a noun, it is a verb, a present continuous, always willing, moving, in its natural state, away from God (of the Bible). Man is dead, totally dead, totally deprived of the love for God; in other words, totally depraved. And that includes his willing. And that is the original Bible doctrine of ”original” sin; willy-nilly.